Beetroot is generally easy to grow and is consistently ranked as one of the top 10 vegetables grown in home gardens. It is a sweet, healthy vegetable loaded with antioxidants. It’s actually these antioxidants, packed inside beetroot’s red pigments that contain cancer-preventing and heart-protecting properties. Beetroot does not require specialist equipment and input costs are relatively low. A popular vegetable in all areas, beetroot is also easy to sell.
Factors that give direct effect on the yield of Beetroot Farming include:
- Varieties of Beetroot, Use for the cultivation
- Climate Condition requirement
- A good Soil preparation
- Way of propagation
- Timely Application of Suitable Manure and Fertilizers
- Post harvesting management
Beetroot is a hardy and cool weather crop and it can be grown throughout the year as long as there is enough water.
It grows best in cool climates but can tolerate some heat and some freezing.
The optimum temperature for its growth is between 15 and 25°C. Very hot conditions result in poor colour of the roots and this lowers the quality.
The soil should be loose, deep and well drained, with a pH of 6.0-7.0.
The crop should be grown in full sun for optimum development.
Soil requirement for Beetroot
Beets are grown widely by the people because beets are able to grow well over a wide range of soil like any fragile soils but soil with sandy loams, deep, & well-drainage power has the excellent result in the beetroots cultivation. Avoid planting beets in heavy soils because, in heavy soil, roots get unsymmetrical in shape since a round shape, intense dark red beets earn greater demand in the market.
A soil with pH, ranging between 6.0 to 7.5 is considered as most appropriate soil for farming beetroots. However, with the help of gypsum, you can manage your soil a well to bring to it in appropriate pH or desired pH. So, cultivate your beets in the soil which is moistened, high is productivity & neutral in nature i.e. neither too basic nor too much acidic.
Excessive clay in your soil leads to decrease in the root production because development of roots takes place at the surface of the soil. So, if present, removed the excessively clay from your soil for beet farming. Adding organic manure to top soil is effective in removing the excessive clay.
- Loosen the soil deeply and take out all the clods. Sprinkle fertiliser and mix thoroughly with the soil. Apply one handful of 2:3:4 fertiliser for every 1m2. If the soil is acidic, add the correct amount of lime.
- If you plant seed directly in the ground, soak it overnight in water before planting. Some people get better success when planting directly into the soil.
- If you plant in rows, leave at least 30cm between the rows. Plant the seeds at least 10cm apart and 3cm deep. Cover the seeds with fine soil and keep the soil moist until the seeds have germinated and you can see the emerging seedlings.
- Beetroot will grow in part shade or full sun. If in full sun, make sure the soil doesn’t dry out. After one month, add CAN topdressing and work it in lightly. Remove weeds regularly and look out for pests. Use the right chemicals or organic remedies to fight pests like aphids, leaf miners and flea beetles.
It should be done immediately after sowing the seeds. Beetroot requires a lot of water for faster growth, therefore, irrigation should be practiced during the dry season.
Avoid overwatering as it leads to too much vegetative growth at the expense of root development. If the beetroots lack water, the resulting roots will be woody.
This helps in conserving soil moisture and suppression of weeds. When decomposed, the mulch releases nutrients into the soil which are absorbed by the crop.
Regular weeding should be practised because weeds compete with the crops and lead to low yields. During weeding, earthing up should be done to cover the roots and prevent exposure to the sun.
Pests and Diseases in Beetroot Farming
To achieve optimum & expected results in your beet farming, pest & disease are controlled a well which causes to lower growth or destroying it. So, to give you comfort, below is some information for you to learn about pest & disease in farming beet with their controlling measures.
In beetroot cultivation, some common pests like Leaf-eating insects, Red spider, Aphids, and flea beetle are found in root cultivation.
- Rotate your crop regularly or inter crop it.
- A good Beet seeds treatment also minimize the cause of pest and disease in your farm.
- Make use of Malathion 50 EC for controlling pest in beetroots cultivation. Spraying it about 2 ml per liter water is enough to control these found pest.
In root farming, Cercospora leaf spot, Brown Rust, damping-off, Downy mildew, Heart rot, Scab, Root rot, & Rhizoctonia are some common disease that found in it.
Note: Your local horticulture is the best for suitable & reliable information on Pest, diseases & its controlling measure. Please contact if any other query.
Cercospora Leaf Spot Beets
It is a common disease found in commercial beetroot farming. Here below is an image, showing its symptoms:
The sweetest beets are no bigger than a tennis ball and can be pulled easily when they have reached the required size. Larger beets can be grown if required but ensure they are always kept well watered or they can become tough and woody.
If you have grown some roots for storage these should be lifted on a dry day at the end of September into October. Pull them by hand if possible, a fork can be used to loosen roots around the plant being careful not to damage the root.
Remove the foliage to about 50 mm(2″) above the crown, twist the foliage off rather than cut with a knife as this will cause the stalks to bleed. Reject any damaged roots or any that have been attacked by pests. Damaged beetroot may rot in storage.